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that one classification is ranked higher than another" (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2005 p. 11).
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Brian wants to use Descriptive Statistics to measure the implementation of the rewards system, 'by the end of the day, we need to present each board member with a summary report and presentation" (USA World Bank p.9)
'We need to make sure that we get a sample the represents our customers" (USA World Bank p. 11)
Descriptive Statistics is also known as 'Methods of organizing, summarizing and presenting data in an informative way' (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2004 p. 19).
Inferential statistics are used to make assumptions about data samples, (Lind
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In business, making good decisions requires the effective use of information. Business Decision Making provides the opportunity of learning a variety of sources and develops techniques in four aspects of information: data gathering, data storage, tools available to create useful information and presenting. Moreover, using appropriate IT software and spreadsheets for data analysis and the preparation of information provides the advantages of using information systems which is currently used at all levels in every organization.
ABC Estate Agent, which is a small estate agent focusing exclusively on sale of residential properties based in Ilford. The firm has 8 staff members and
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events, etc. Regardless of the number of hours spent on campus in the classroom, office hours, and in other duties, as professional employees under salaried contract, faculty spend additional time each week preparing for classes, grading assessments and analyzing the results. Those inclined to conduct research or write scholarly papers do so above and beyond the time already described.
Cohen, Brawer, and Kisker (2013), in summarizing Roessler (2006), stated that community college full-time faculty “salaries differ by institutional locale, averaging $59,960 in suburban colleges and $46,534 in rural colleges” (p. 89). Many faculty members also teach overload classes for additional pay which adds
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conviction and “have your audience’s best interests at heart” (Witt). You must remember that your listeners cannot go back through the presentation to review key points that they were not able to catch, so it helps to control the rate of your presentation and make sure that it is not rushed because it can cause you to easily lose the audience’s attention. A successful presenter knows that their speech, appearance, and movements can affect their presentation and how their audience may receive the information they are presenting, so they may use verbal cues to let listeners know when they are summarizing, previewing, or switching directions.
Planning Visual Aids and Multimedia Presentations
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Statistics in Business
Statistics in Business
Statistics refers to the use of numerical information in everyday life to calculate facts and figures in limitless circumstances such as, batting averages, market share, and changes in the stock market. In addition, statistics refers to the scientific collecting, classifying, summarizing, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting numerical data. Statistics involves describing data sets and drawing conclusions based on sampling about the data sets (McClave, Benson & Sincich, 2011). Statistics are divided into two areas: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics are procedures used to describe and
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CoffeeTime succeed in its new market.Another useful research approach would be to look at competitor's descriptive statistics, or "methods of organizing, summarizing, and presenting data in an informal way" (Lind, et al., 2006, p. 6). This information may depict how long competitors have been in business as well as their profitability. Descriptive statistics may show CoffeeTime certain areas where coffee businesses are or are not successful.In order to ensure the data retrieved are accurate, a sampling method must be carefully chosen to fit CoffeeTime's needs. While simple random sampling, "a sample selected so that each item or person in the population has the same chance of being included
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NotationWhy are Notes valuable?- record most important parts of research materials- provide a permanent, authorative written record that can be referred to- organize research and learning skills- helps summarizing the material Note-making Methods1. Outlining- notepaper, index cards, or a computer can be used- feature only most important informationSteps:- record full bibliographic information from the source (author, title, publisher, volume, page numbers); don't use abbreviations; write neatly- when noting, indicate page reference for the information on the paper or card used- indicate main idea/theme of the note- in
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Since the beginning of time research and statistics have exercised a vital role in psychology. In this succinct writing an elaboration of how research and statistics are utilized in psychology is revealed. Furthermore, the how and why of such components are expounded herein and a detailed look at primary and secondary data are exposed.
Research, statistics, primary, and secondary data are imperative in psychological analysis. Implementing each of these variants in psychological research may prove beneficial to the researcher when properly appropriated in psychological exploration. In that regard, this discussion begins by portraying the role that research plays in psychology and
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responsible for presenting data management goals as well as the organizational needs. Moreover, the data governance council is responsible for making decision that is in relation to data management. This council consists of executive sponsor and it should have power over data governance. The council should have five to seven people who are active and sustainable. The data governance council will be of great assistance in identifying the kind of data needed for a given development. Moreover, the executive sponsor will ensure that the organization has strategic direction, advocacy, sponsorship together with funding (Otto & Wende, 2007).
Proficient chief business data steward The chief data steward is
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Running head: REGIONAL INTEGRATION PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 SUMMARIZING AND PRESENTING DATA PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 3
Regional Integration of Mexico PaperKristina HammockMGT/448September 29, 2014Richard DoolMexico and the NAFTA Trading BlocIntroductionAccording to Wikipedia (2014), regional integration is the process in which neighboring states enter into an agreement in order to upgrade cooperation through common institutions and rules. Regional integration is an important method that in order to work requires a country's willingness and its eagerness to participate with or to become one with another country. The extent of what is shared by the separate countries with each other determines
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before they produce bad information. Irrelevant information should be screened out of the system. The system should be efficient in collecting information so that data are entered only once.Data processing depends on the types of data and their intended use. Processing may involve summarizing and analyzing data.The data base provides for the storage and retrieval of data as needed for various information needs. Attributes of relevance about various entities are stored as records. A series of related records make a file. A data base includes related files.Reports and information is provided in a form and at a time that meets the needs of users. The format must be flexible.Important Attributes
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There are two distinct variables that will be analyzed in this paper. These variables were taken from 20 industries and 140 subindustries in the United States. The first variable to be studied is the Industry group. The industry group variable consists of numbers from 1 to 20 to denote the industry group to which the particular sub industry belongs.
The second variable to be studied is the Number of Production Workers. Along with the Number of Production workers, the number of employees are in units of 1000.Through this paper, Statistical analyses such as methodology, tables, figures, formulas, and results will be presented. In summarizing these variables, descriptive measures
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my eyes on theses pie charts, it was one of a kind because it was a 3 dimensional shape that is a whole circle but it’s divided into how many slice you want, with percentages and labels. I noticed a circle with percentages and labels. I felt that a pie chart of this data was more meaningful if it told me how much time I spent in a day. I observed that this chart provided a powerful way of summarizing data and presenting them in a way that most people find it easy to read.
The article “Procrastination” by Dr. David Palmer links with me in someway because I don’t enjoy studying or doing homework because I won’t have any time to myself. Studying is a way to pass a test or quiz and it will
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the warehouse .
Historical data in possession of the MoE and the knowledge of experts can be combined to define rule checking algorithms in engines that can flag exceptions when applied against the data collected from institutions. For example, if it is known that the pass percentage of students from a certain district in Singapore is 70% for mid-semester examinations, a sudden spurt in the pass percentage figures between consecutive semesters should alert authorities to the possible supply of spurious data by some institutions in the latest semester.
Qualitative data such as the feedback from students about instructors can be aggregated using text mining tools to draw summarizing inferences.
Although the above framework considerably increases data quality and largely automates its assurance, it is recommended that periodic manual audits by government bodies be enforced on institutions to serve as an additional layer of supervision.
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in their discipline or profession from a rhetorical perspective” (Bell, 2014). Prior to the “Group Report Presentation”, “Summary Assignment”, and “Interview and Ethnography Assignment” I did not feel comfortable speaking or writing about my course major, computer science. I did not feel that I had a strong enough knowledge base to speak or write on any aspect of the discipline. Through the topic of radio-frequency identification, I was able to identify and analyze the reason as to why I was presenting and writing an essay on the subject. I described to my audience the importance of radio-frequency identification through different rhetorical situations. Radio-Frequency Identification has made
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Throughout our observation week we were able to collect vast amount of data both from observations and interviews. In order to let our data speak to us and help us to understand how the collaborative work is conducted between ITB and Royal Danish Library we have adopted grounded theory method as a main data analysis practice to work with. This decision involved summarizing cons and pros of using this approach. According to Glaser, Barney G & Strauss (1967), using grounded theory involves development of theory rather by logical deduction then from experimental data itself. The publication of The Discovery of Grounded theory finds it relevant in practical applications and enable prediction
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reading a text, gain an overview of the text before reading, make predictions about the upcoming text, read selectively what they already know, note whether their predictions and expectations about text content are being met, and revise their prior knowledgeBackground of the StudyReading is one of the language skills, and reading skill has an important role in learning and teaching a foreign language. However, students may have difficulties in reading comprehension, and it will be useful for both teachers and students to find the difficulties and right strategies in order to comprehend reading without any problem.Furthermore, before presenting the solutions or strategies of good reading, we must
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collection methods of an upcoming research paper. The following section will discuss the selection of an adequate sample size, using best practice for qualitative research. The paper shows a chart showing five different qualitative methods of research, along with the typical data collection methods. The paper will then conclude by summarizing the significant points.
One of the fundamental tasks in qualitative research, other than the selection of a research topic, is to create credible research by obtaining an appropriate sample. This is to ensure that there are enough data for credible analysis and justifications of the qualitative study’s conclusions. According to Marshall
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qualitative judgments made by lots of different people. On the other hand, qualitative information can be easily converted into quantitative data, but qualitative information is more efficiently.Quantitative methods of data analysis can be decided into four main types.1. Univariate descriptive analysis is concerned with summarizing the characteristics of some phenomenon in terms of distribution on variables.2. Bivariate descriptive analysis is concerned with describing the form and strength of associations between variable3. Inferential analysis is concerned with trying to establish the direction and strength of influence between variables4. Inferential analysis is concerned with estimating whether
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Business always requires a number of logical and sequential tasks and one of the most important process is accounting. In the last lecture, Professor Chen introduced us about Accounting, which is an integral system of every organization. By that lecture, I can generally understand the basic steps included in accounting system, procedures as well as the method to evaluate the financial statements of an organization.
The first and the most basic concept is accounting. It is an sequential process including collecting business transaction documents, recording in journals, classifying information, summarizing data, reporting, and the last step, analyzing the reports about financial activities of
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. The leadership plans the approach and selects specific individuals to outline boundaries that elicit input and advice before presenting the decision points and summarizing the solution for implementation. Consensual skills are essential for leaders as they negotiate individual conflict situations or limit biased team facilitation and inter-departmental political situations. Staff members respond positively when they understand their leaders' decision-making process, according to Hill and Ingala (2001), "they are confident that he or she will thoughtfully consider all suggestions for change and implement these ideas whenever possible". Therefore, consensual skills increase the team's
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is to understand objectively the reasons for both similarities and differences among humans, their behaviors and ideas. Using the central concept of culture, a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and material objects that members of a society use to cope with their world, anthropologists investigate and gather data on the human condition. Cultural anthropology is a broad subject and not only includes different ethic cultures but social economic cultures as well. Cultural Anthropology seeks to understand and describe each culture in its own perspective and in comparative perspective. Cultural anthropologists gather data through first-hand field study in other cultures and do
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briefs, distribution of summary document, sending regular newsletters summarizing research in progress trying to keep the audience involved and at the same time making an attempt to involve it in expanding ‘its ranks’ with the ‘talk about that to a friend’ and/or hyperlinks for sharing on major social networks combining this with the sending of letter of thanks anonymous or targeted, online and on-paper; the researchers could clearly and openly ask to their audience to disseminate the news and results (for example to at least a certain number of people though chain mails), no one will blame them. Even more important researchers should not limit themselves only to host or attend scientific
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ideally be full year courses or two semester-long courses that progress in level of difficulty from semester to semester.
While the focus of first year is to develop general academic strategies and skills for acquiring and communicating economic concepts generated primarily by others, the second year embeds students increasingly in the knowledge-generating process itself, as students actively apply the strategies learned in year one to complete a Research Methods and Discussion course. In the first semester, students complete a group research project, negotiating, discussing, problem-solving, summarizing and presenting the results of their economic research to classmates. In the second
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Broncos, which is very interesting, and his humor has distinguished him from similar columnists. His cheesy phrases really lighten up the mood when needed, and helps to keep the reader’s interest. Paige is also an effective writer because he does an exceptional job of summarizing Broncos’ events and presenting them in an easy to understand manner.
Paige, Woody. “Broncos’ defense rides to the rescue, for a change.” Denver Post 27 October 2013. Web. 31 Oct 2013.
Paige, Woody. “Cheap shot on Peyton Manning will be punished by NFL.” Denver Post 11 November 2013. Web. 21 Nov 2013.
Paige, Woody. “John Fox’s serious symptoms bigger than football.” Denver Post 3 November 2013. Web. 6 Nov 2013.
Paige, Woody. “Plenty of blame to go around in Broncos’ loss to Colts.” Denver Post 21 October 2013. Web. 21 Oct 2013.
Paige, Woody. “Von Miller good enough to rescue Denver Broncos’ defense.” Denver Post 20 October 2013. Web. 6 Nov 2013.
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Every business needs to keep record of cash that comes into the business, goes out, services are rendered on credit and money invested, just to name a few events. The method used to record or track all these events is called Accounting. Merriam Webster defines Accounting as, "the system of recording and summarizing business and financial transactions and analyzing, verifying, and reporting the results". (www.m-w.com) The text defines Accounting as, "information system that identifies, records, and communicates economic events in an organization". (Kimmel, 2005) Accounting is needed in order to collect and record the economic events within a company to continuously evaluate the company's
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companies and organisations. Presenting is probably the most common methods of delivering product concepts to customers, showing the results of teamwork, analyzing problems found in the work and so on. Although the importance of presentation skills is likely to be not obvious in other fields compared with the business world, the effect of presenting should be correctly estimated in the university and workplace.
Part two: Skills of Presenting Data
To be more specific, skills of presenting data or skills in numeracy are becoming more prominent in competing in the fierce commercial markets. However, it seems like the UK does not get a good record of numeracy. 'Half of adults have math skills of
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reveal. Few such classifications are depicted in Figure-2.
Each log has its own structure and parameters of presenting information but the common fact they share is the rate of growth of data is almost comparable in each case.
A lot of statistical work had already been done on log analysis in past years. Application of time series analysis to transaction log of web search engine , end user searching behavior based analysis of transaction web logs  and many other research papers suggest that a lot of focus had been on transaction log analysis. Three approaches that had been worked upon are term level analysis, query level analysis and session level analysis. But it is need of time, to
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. The information should timely which is available when the information need to be used to make decision, usable which is it can be used easily and common way. Other than that, it must be complete as it’s provides all necessary data and it precise as it has all the information required.
While the information is the data that is usually accurate and timely, organized and being specified based from its purpose, it will be presenting with a contact that relevant and meaningful and it can be lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. Information can be a valuable things because it can affect behavior, a decision, or an outcome. For example, if a a lots of student fail in
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, Creative Commons also seeks major reforms of copyright laws to become more suitable to the age of the Internet and achieve the goal of more universal sharing culture and information.
Newspaper or Periodical
Sieminski, Paul. (2014, January 17) Corporations Abusing Copyright Laws Are Ruining the Web for Everyone. Wired.com. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/opinion/2014/01/internet-companies-care-fair-use
Sieminski’s article begins by summarizing the concept of “fair use” which is a legal doctrine allowing limited use of copyrighted materials. Sieminski then claims that copyright holders are threatening fair use because they’ve been given a simple why to remove content, which they feel
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informationWhen a poster is seen for longer time it may not attractive. So it should be dynamicGRAPHSDefinition:Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical data and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.Method of preparation:· Before making the bar chart makes a rough sketch of it in a note book.· For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50x 72 cm size.· Use two different color shades for the two contrasting groups.· The bars should be equi-spaced.· Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper.· Numbers specifying the magnitude of the bars should be on the top on the
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an unintelligible quote. Bring up any conflicting evidence, tell your reader what someone who wanted to prove your thesis false might say about it, and let your reader know why you believe this point of view to be mistaken. This is the most difficult part of the body of the paper, but it's a potential slam-dunk if you pull it off well. In one or two paragraphs, you raise and answer all the objections your professor is likely to have with your paper, leaving him or her with no option but to agree with your argument.
The function of the conclusion is to remind the reader of what he or she has just read. Therefore, many successful conclusions start out by summarizing the argument in brief
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towards service recovery.Chapter 6 is the conclusion of this thesis, summarizing the findings of this dissertation as well as the limitation of this study. Chapter 3 MethodologyThe main objective of this dissertation is to investigate whether service recovery makes the operation of service firms more effective. In this chapter, the type of research approach, and the sample selection method implemented to analyze collected data and the validity and reliability of this research are presented in the subsequence.3.1 Type of ResearchWith an effort to fully understand the theme of this dissertation, it is very crucial to review the previous study. In this stage, the exploratory method of research should
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, highlights the practical applications of each, and presents resources for further exploration of each technique in depth. It then discusses sampling, qualitative data collection methods, qualitative data analysis, limitations of the qualitative approach, and suggestions for evaluating qualitative studies. It concludes by summarizing ethical considerations for the researcher in using qualitative research.Types of Qualitative MethodsQualitative research embodies a number of different research approaches, each with differing assumptions, intents, and methods. Historical trends in qualitative research show that as different types of phenomena have come under study (e.g., feminism, urban cultures
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company, are presenting special interest for the theory of organizational behavior and practice of human resource management.
A discussion of the job satisfaction problem concentrates attention on the employees’ attitude toward their job, and a discussion of organization devotion –on the attitude toward the organization in the whole.
What is job satisfaction once more?
Lock gives a following detail definition of job satisfaction: “ pleasant, positive emotional condition coming from your job evaluation or job experience.”1 Job satisfaction is a result of the very employees perception of the fact for how much their job provides important, from their viewpoint, things.
There are three most
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, which are splitted into octave and a sestet, and has typical for Shakespeare’s sonnets rhyme scheme: a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g. He uses first two quatrains to establish a problem and then resolves it in a third quatrain, summarizing solution in the following couplet.
The author’s goal in the first quatrain is to show what is causing his inability to speak in the young man’s presence. The persona firstly compares himself to an “unperfect actor on the stage” (23.1), who is unable express his feeling and carefully follows his script, and then he becomes “some fierce thing” (23.3), whose excessive passion makes him weak. The actor’s fear on the stage illustrates his imperfection and thus
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I. Crosstabulating VariablesA. In the simplest case, a bivariate (two-variable) distribution, showing the distribution of one variable for each category of another variable; can also be elaborated using three or more variables1. the "body" of the tablea. part between the row and column labels and the row and column totals2. the "cells" of the tablea. defined by combinations of row and column values3. Marginal distributionsa. summary of distributions in the margins of a crosstab that correspond to the frequency distribution of the row variable and of the column variableB. Graphing Association1. efficient tool for summarizing relationships among variablesa. race & regionb. relationshipsC
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1) The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to A. summarize data in a useful and informative manner B. make inferences about a population C. determine if the data adequately represents the population D. gather or collect data 2) The general process of gathering, organizing, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting data is called A. statistics B. descriptive statistics C. inferential statistics D. levels of measurement 3) The performance of personal and business investments is measured as a percentage, return on investment. What type of variable is return on investment? A. Qualitative B. Continuous C. Attribute D. Discrete 4) What type of variable is the number of robberies reported in
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Do people really like their jobs? Definitely, everyone knows from the news about dissatisfied workers going on strike or even acting violently toward their supervisors, directors, but overall people are quite satisfied with their jobs. According to the surveys percentage of satisfied people averages in the US is about 85 percent. The feelings, reflecting attitudes toward one's job, are known as job satisfaction.Settings, related to the personnel job satisfaction and devotion to the company, are presenting special interest for the theory of organizational behavior and practice of human resource management.A discussion of the job satisfaction problem concentrates attention on the employees
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such as recording a transaction or an event (eg. a
bank deposit slip or order form).
b. an Inquiry, which is a request for information (eg. list this
week's sales above $3000)
c. a Response to a prompt (eg. a Y or a N)
d. an Instruction (eg. "Print File", "Save File")
e. a Message to another user on the system (g. intranet mail)
f. a Change (eg. editing a record)
ii. Processing capabilities include:
a. Sorting data (eg. sorting a customer file alphabetically)
d. Retrieving, recording and updating data in storage (eg. a
e. Summarizing processes (eg. totals and subtotals)
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, interpreting, and summarizing the number of adult women who were arrested, incarcerated, or treated medically, as a direct result of drug-related incidents. The National Corrections Reporting Programs, the Federal Bureau of Investigations, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network were all credited with collecting essential data that made this research study feasible.
Researchers, Corman et al, employed a method of available data and content analysis for their research. Both of these methods operate in an unobtrusive fashion, allowing for efficiency and economic savings. However, relying on available data and content analysis could have placed the study at risk of poor validity, as the researchers
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the research, collecting the data, preparing and analyzing the data, and presenting the findings. Collecting information is too costly to allow the problem to be defined vaguely or incorrectly. At this point management needs to set the research objectives. At the end of this first step, the researcher should know (1) the current situation. (2) the nature of the problem; and (3) the specific question or questions the research will be designed to answer. Secondary Data consists of information that already exists, having been collected for another purpose. Internal Secondary Data is available within the company. External Secondary Data: must be extracted from sources outside the firm. Primary
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existing information is adequate or if additional information is necessary, one can summarize the information in a useful and informative way, analyze the available information, draw conclusions, and make inferences while assessing the risk of an incorrect conclusion (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen 2004, p. 4).Tools and techniques like descriptive statistics, not only help determine the data most applicable, but such tools also help decide the best use for the information gathered. Descriptive Statistics, defined as "the method of organizing, summarizing, and presenting data in an informative way" (Lind et al., 2004, p. 6). Applying descriptive statistics to UWB's marketing survey conducted would
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his research team member, Poehlman was accused of scientific fraud by a former lab technician, Walter DeNino, at the University of Vermont. As maintained by The New York Times, Poehlman has been presenting fraudulent data in lectures and in published papers, and has been using this data to obtain millions of dollars in federal grants from the National Institutes of Health. The investigation took years, however, On March 17, 2005; Poehlman was eventually pleaded guilty for scientific fraud, admitting that, seventeen of his grant applications submitted to the National Institutes of Health were based on false data. Furthermore, ten of Poehlman’s published papers were proven to be fictitious
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governments receive reimbursement for the work that is provided. An experienced biller can boost revenue performance for the facility while keeping the business running smoothly.
• The biller normally gathers all data concerning the bill including claims transmission, payment posting, charge entry, insurance follow-up and patient follow-up.
• Medical billers often communicate with physicians and other health care professionals to explain diagnoses or to attain further information by means of phones, email, fax, etc. The biller must know how to read a medical record and be familiar with CPT®, HCPCS Level II and ICD-9-CM codes.
• A certified medical biller is one who passes the Certified Medical
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Mahfouz's Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
In the history of literature, perhaps the most explored genre is the historical novel. From the Epic of Gilgamesh to the present day, authors have taken historical facts and interpreted them novelistically. When no facts are available, the author may extrapolate missing parts of the story from two sources -- either through the interpretation of the existing scholarly data or through the author's imagination. These two approaches to 'filling in the gaps' of a historical novel can either appease the historian and displease the literary critic or please the literary critic and upset the historian. Very few novelists can produce a historically accurate
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Russia, former head of Soviet Union, where consumption of alcoholic beverages, especially spirits, has been one of the most significant public health problems for many centuries (Levintova, 2006). Review will access and compare literature about situation connected with alcohol in both neighborhood countries, Kazakhstan and Russia. The main focus will be on summarizing data concerned measures to prevent increase of alcohol consumption i.e. ways of solution to the problem.
Despite the importance of reducing levels of consumption of alcoholic beverages, sufficient amount of alcohol research have been in small scale in Kazakhstan, often neglecting preventative measures and policies. In order to
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on her master's dissertation and consequentially was invited to participate in the 1925 program (Bernard 1973, 773). Although Bernard has not advertised this paper much, she stated, "the important thing was that the idea of empirical research was introduced and took hold" (Bernard 1973, 773).Bernard worked enthusiastically on a study of Jewish assimilation to American life in Minnesota. Her methods of developing data were quantitative. She sent twelve hundred questionnaires to Jewish organizations, mostly in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area (Bannister 1991, 80). Further, she published two series of articles that appeared in the early 1930s the first dealing with the measurement of success in
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A summarizing critique of "Organizational predictors of women on corporate boards"(Hillman et al., 2007)This recent article is one of the first attempts to explain: What organizational characteristics predict females in the boardroom?Recognizing these characteristics might help to understand, why do some firms have women on their board of directors and others don't? Later case exists although "popular press and institutional investors do pressure for greater female directors on board" (p.941) and "observable diversity (e.g. gender) on board is positively associated with improved financial performance" (Erhardt et al 2003).Earlier studies examined gender at work group level& resource
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or protocol. By taking part in clinical trials, participants can not only play a more active role in their own health care, but they can also access new treatments and help others by contributing to medical research” (National Institute of Health, 2012).
Discipline-specific information requirements
The nature of a clinical trial is to prove or refute a hypothesis by generating, collecting, and analyzing data (Krishanankutty, Bellary, Kumar & Moodahadu, 2012). Acquiring data is the first step and it is a difficult and time-consuming progress. After the data are obtained, they should be appropriately integrated and stored for the purpose of retrieving, comparing, manipulating, and