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“Each of us has our own sets of needs that motivate our communication and our responses to messages. While not everyone’s priorities are identical, our needs resemble one another’s.’’
Maslow wanted to understand what inspires people. Maslow believed that people carry a set of motivation systems that are unrelated to rewards or to the unconscious desires.
Maslows hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, that are often interpreted as the hierarchical levels that are within a pyramid.
The five stage model can be divided into basic needs and growth needs. Basic needs include physiological, safety, love and esteem. And growth needs include self-actualization.
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A way to enhance discussion about family life is to identify the ways that families achieve each of the internal functions. Besides the basic necessities such as shelter, water, warmth, and care; families may also provide internal and external functions such as socialization, intellectual development, recreation, accommodation, transmission, and emotional support. There are positive and negative communication patterns associated with each function, which will be further discussed.
Providing care is the basic internal function and a base for the definition of family according to the United States Government. Providing care can be achieved by providing food, shelter, clothing, and caretaking
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the developers’ updates are about graphics and it rarely involve the program’s function itself. For example Skype, which is one of the most famous programs people use to communicate using video calls and voice calls. So its main function is communication however most Skype updates are visual rather than functional and rarely involve the program itself because of the same misconception of function follows form. This caused Skype a huge loss in the number of users; they started switching to other programs that offered better quality and functionality. Another example is Google Chrome and Internet Explorer ‘internet browsers’. haven’t you ever wonder why people use Google Chrome instead of
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must tailored information accordingly. This is because the tasks that had been given are not overdue the deadline and to avoid from gather useless information. Other than that , total situation of organization in downward communication also affects the flow of message. Management of organization must divide their employee by department or function to make them easy getting the information. Examples of department are human resource, marketing, finance, or operating. So, information about making promotion only know by department of marketing or sales and other department are doing their work by their function in organization. Last but not least, the employees always reject messages incongruent
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define internal communication as a communication with employees internally within the organisation (Cornelissen, Joep. 2011. 164). It is not as simply as circular information around but it is creating meaning and understanding (Gray, Rodney and Larry Robertson. 2005. 27). According to Effective Internal Communication, the author mentioned about BBC who define “‘internal communication’ as the act of communicating internally, whereas ‘internal communications’ is the function which helps deliver it” (Smith, Lyn; Mounter, Pamela. 2008. 10). In short, internal communication is an exchange ideas among employees in a particular organisation.
Furthermore, internal communication practices includes
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Communication can be referred to as, the sending information through a channel to the receiver and the receiver understanding the meaning of the information. Effective communication is very important to any organization and without it the organization will not function effectively. Communication has four functions, they are control, motivation information and emotional expression. Communication can be broken down into two groups, interpersonal and non verbal. Within an organization formal and informal communication is used. Communication plays an important role in goal setting.
Communication can be used to control the behavior of employees. This is done with the use of hierarchies and
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just verbal communication, that is, auditory means that person A has with person B who receives the messages, processes it, and then responds. Brant R. Burleson describes communication, not as a single process, but is "made up of several interrelated, simultaneously functioning sub processes (e.g., message production, message interpretation, nonverbal cue interpretation, turn taking, etc.) His description both defines, and elaborates on communication as a process. He expands to include all aspects of an interaction. His conclusion the "communication is a highly abstract logical function invented to encompass and relate these sub processes" is the best I have read. Without including the various
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, feelings and attitudes.Without an effective communication flow,assignment of basic function management ( planning,organizing,directing and controlling )cannot be performed well.Information flows in an organization both formally and informally.Feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided.Communication gaps should not occur in any organization. It is essential for success and growth of an organization.Business communication defined as an exchange of information and ideas,manifests itself in business and other communication flows.There are three types of communication flows such as upward, downward and horizontal communications.Communication flow have their advantages within
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skills. Aided communication also comes with its strengths and weaknesses.
Low-tech communication system can take many forms and anything that doesn’t need a battery to function. It may include objects of reference, photographs and pictures, graphic symbols and text. High-tech communication systems are devices that do require a battery to be able to function. It can range from simple high- tech for example, single message devices, printer boards, toys and books, which speak when touched to very sophisticated systems that may include specialized computers and programs, and electronic aids which can speak or print.
Any one who has a disability that makes it difficult for them to communicate
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welfare of the organization. Communication is essential for the internal functioning of the enterprise because it integrates the managerial function. In McDonald uses communication to achieve the following purposes:
a) To establish and disseminate the goals of an enterprise
b) To organize human and other resources in the most effective and efficient way
c) To select, develop, and appraise members of the organization
d) To lead, direct, motivate and create a climate in which people want to contribute
e) To control performance
In addition to the above, the communication facilitates the managerial functions, but also that communication relates an enterprise to its external environment. It is
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communication lines. Professionals always avoid this topology for the sake of simplicity.
Line or bus topology:
This is the simplest and holds the favor of professionalism. In this topology each network participant is connected over the same line. The interface is only one sided and the data rolling over the single line is broadcasted to each member. However, a separate bus control unit is present to control the flow of data in case any station fails to happen.
It is similar to line topology except that here the buses interconnect to form nodes. This feature enhances its capacity to function over larger areas.
In this topology, several two point connections are made
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management thereof to benefit from communication as a strategic propellant of superior organizational performance, is substantial. In light of this argument it has become necessary for organizations to analyze the effectiveness of communication within the intra-organizational context.
Communication as a management function
Management is transliterated as the act or process of impelling the activity of people with the aim of achieving the predetermined desired goals. Management includes functions such as decision making, planning, staffing, organizing, directing (coordination), and controlling both organizational material and human resources (Miller, 2012). According to Henry Fayol in his
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better understanding of the role, objectives, accomplishments and needs of the organization.Employee relations personnel must know that employees are a company's most important audience, and maintaining their good will, as well as continuing the image and reputation of the company is a primary function of public relations. Communications is a means to inform and provide employees with a channel to upper management. A survey is an excellent tool to determine what information employees consider important. Companies use several communication tools, such as monthly or quarterly magazines, newsletters, bulletin boards, all-hands meetings, and announcements via the company's email system. In addition
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, when did the I-function cease to exist? Some patients with more serious cases of the locked-in syndrome can be fully awake, and aware of what is happening around them, but are unable to effect even the most minor response (4). I was initially unsure of what to make of these patients. How could one objectively determine if these patients had an I-function? What if an I-function were present, and we just could not prove it? In looking at more sites on the web, I found that there are numerous new technologies being tested which can help in both the diagnosis and therapy of patients are with varying degrees of this syndrome. One such technology is called the Eyegaze Communication System and is
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their superior), or it
can be discussing non work-related matters (e.g. arranging a staff
It could also refer, for example, to the anonymous passing of
information to the media relating to unethical business practices.
Communications can also be classified in terms of direction, vertical
or horizontal. Vertical communication can be top-down (e.g. directions
and instructions given from superior to sub-ordinate) or it can be
bottom-up (e.g. feedback from sub-ordinate to superior).
Horizontal communication refers to contacts and flows of information
between people at the same level in the business. Where there is no
facility for feedback, (often under an
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communication with the Vice President, leave with a clear understanding of their job responsibility and goals. There are five managers who report to the Vice President and have management responsibility over one hundred and forty employees. The Case Management department provides 24/7 coverage. 365 days a year. The department is divided into smaller divisions. Each division represents employees with a different and specialized job function. The department has various employment statuses and shifts: fulltime, part-time, weekenders, night, eight hour shifts, twelve hour shifts and prn. The number of employees, different job functions, various employment statuses and reporting manager creates
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ICA-type communication audit During the past decades, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. This communication necessity can cause problems if not used effectively. Johnson Controls in Athens employees about 1,000 individuals on three different shifts. This plant is a producer of automobile seat frames. The lack of communication is the biggest barrier. All of the "big wigs" are on day shift and the off shifts suffer from inadequate communication. The shift to shift communication is terrible. Next, there is the issue of the huge information load. In the automobile industry, news changes from day to day
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function is mainly internal oriented and focuses on the product and communication according to the strategy of the organization. Communication management, government affairs, media, publicity, and investor relations can be considered organizational functions. The organizational functions help an organization to launch new products, build interest in those new products, build credibility in the organization, and reduce promotion costs.Investor RelationsThe investors of a company are essentially the owners of the company. These owners could very well include employees. Investor relations came to light in the mid -1930s after the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Act of 1934. (Seitel) The
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. Great companies rely on effective communication for greater efficiency and teamwork. Therefore, figuring out how to get it together so teams can function optimally is a priority for any business. (Feigenbaum)” Communication must be made a priority in order to succeed in business. This is where the fault lies with the good communicator. AS great as they are at communicating with other people, they do not enforce a workplace of equal communication. By this, I mean that there is no policy or enforcement stating that employees must communicate with each other. Granted, it is the responsibility of management to ensure that everyone is kept in the loop; but in order to really work together as a
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employees is essential for an organization’s success. “HRM must ensure a safe and healthy working environment; caring for employees’ well being has a major effect on their commitment” (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007, p. 41). Providing employees with work/life programs such employee assistance programs helps the employee deal with stressful situations in their personal lives which will in turn benefit the organization as well. Communication is a key element in developing employee job loyalty and commitment. Communication programs keep employees informed and provide an avenue for employees to voice opinions and concerns. HRM’s efforts in this function will help the company reach its goal of
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To function effectively in today’s society people must communicate with one another. Yet for some individuals communication experiences are so unrewarding that they either consciously or unconsciously avoid situations where communication is required. (McCroskey & Richmond, 1979) The term ‘communication apprehension’ was coined by James McCroskey (1976a) and is defined as “an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons” (McCroskey, 1984). In the last two decades communication apprehension and related constructs, such as reticence and unwillingness to communicate, have received extensive research and
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jobs, group jobs, assign work and delegate authority and responsibilities.3. LeadingThe third function of management is leading. Leading is to influence people's behavior through motivation, communication and group dynamics. Leading implies managerial activities with the aim of causing proper employee performance. Satisfactory fulfillment of this function involves finding out employee needs and creating reward systems for quality and timely work. Leading not only enables the employees achieving organization's goal but simultaneously helps them achieving their own career objectives. Leadership involves a manager using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills. The outcome of
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less accurate than normally developed children. These results support the Executive Function (EF) theory which states that having a deficit in executive function will show an impairment in activities involving set-shifting, planning, working memory, inhibition, and mental flexibility. Autistic children have a deficit in executive function, which is why those participants will have lower task performance than normally developed children. The study’s main effect could help parents of ASD children by trying to find new techniques that can help their children; for example, token economies where children are give tokens with the presence of absence of target behaviors (Carnett, et al., 2014).
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effectively. This makes sense in meeting a range
of Tesco objectives for example building strong relationships with
customer, becoming the leading market leaders, developing a reputation
and to maximize sales and revenues.
Tesco are continually communicating with different groups of people,
these communication performs a number of functions:
¨ A public relations function - to present a good image of the
¨ An information function - to provide various groupings with
essential information about the company.
¨ A day to day trading function - to transact the business's daily
The impact of ICT
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relations with his internal and external stakeholders, as well as allocate recourses needed for caring out the task. Through organizing period in my organization managers must consider means of communication, level of contribution from individual departments, subsidiaries and subcontractors. During this time the main focus is on arranging all necessary tools and recourses according to the plan and delegate responsibilities in the way that will ensure successful execution of the project.Directing is the third function of management and it is also feeds off of planning process. Through directing, managers are able to execute their earlier developed plan, influence and manage the progress of the
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with medical interpreters, and argue that an interdisciplinary team is oriented in just one direction to care for patients, and bring them to their ultimate level of functioning. Certainly, all of the observations provided by this journal reaffirmed how understanding the basic principles of communication should be a paramount skill of any nurse. However, many barriers can disrupt therapeutic communication, and comprehensive assessment is necessary in order to determine the culture, religion, education background, and socioeconomic status of the patient (Finke et al., 2008) Patient centered communication empower nurses with the necessary skills to identify what patients are experiencing and
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To say that art serves no function is absurd. Art is a function of everyday life. First of all, art holds a function to its creator. Art can be expressed through clothing, home décor, expression, housing, food, jewelry, and religion just to name a few. Architects, clothing designers, even landscapers rely on art to supply their income. Other artists like painters, photographers, and chefs earn a living through their expression of art. Why would art be created just so it could exist for its own sake? Art doesn't decide its own function; its creator does. When one thinks of an artist the initial thought would be about painters, sculptors, and photographers. Yes, all of these people
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communication. “Dyadic communication involves two people” (“Intrapersonal and Interpersonal” p. 3). This could be a teacher talking to a student or two friends talking to each other. Another example of this is “Public communication involves a large group with a primarily one-way monologue style generating only minimal feedback. Information sharing, entertainment and persuasion are common purposes of public communication” (“Intrapersonal and Interpersonal” p. 3). This form is usually seen in a classroom where the teacher talks and/or lectures students on a topic and there is less communication going on. The next way of categorizing Interpersonal communication is by the setting or function of the
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distractions such as an uncomfortable setting, health problems, poor lighting. There are also emotional distractions which are feeling of the individuals such as being upset or tired. These distractions can block the listening process of communication. Communicating these emotions of feeling with the group can help the group understand and attempt to overcome or accommodate to help the group function efficiently.Cultural and perception differences also play a huge role in effective communication (Hahn, 2007).Everyone has perceptions that are unique, and our ideas may differ from others. These different perceptions are caused by past experiences, knowledge, beliefs. These perceptual
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Communication in the E-WorldMost often when people think of communication, they think of particular activities such as verbal, written, and audio/visual presentations. This is especially true in business; indeed a review of almost any organization will find a function called "Communications". Within this function you can see activities such as advertising, direct mail, publishing and press relations. Nowadays, you will also typically find a collection of activities around the new e-technology with Intranets, Internets and Extranets.In consideration of the way we organize and discuss communication, it is quite easy to forget that while it covers a broad range of activities, communication is
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Stephen Covey (1990) recommends “Seek first to understand, then to be understood” (Irmsher, 2000). In order to interact with anyone, teachers, students, community members, family members and stakeholders, one must first understand where the person is coming from. When one listen to a person attentive that gives that person psychological air. Communicating is vital to being an effective educator. We communicate with others both verbally and nonverbal by eye to eye contact, gestures, body languages, and posture. Many problems arise because of poor communication among leaders. Self-awareness builds a positive school environment through effective communication skills by sending direct messages
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communication is the study of human communication. It offers the researcher the opportunity to seek out communication from a array of perspectives. The study of communication and mass media has led to the principle of numerous theories, for example, structural and functional theories deem that social formation are factual and function in ways that can be observed without bias. The two-step flow theory is the study focused on the process of decision-making. Cognitive and behavioral theories have a tendency to focus on psychology of individuals. Interactions theories observe social life as a process of interaction. Interpretive theories reveal the way people really understand their own
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Lab Report on Serial Communication and Accessing IBM Comm. Ports Lab Title: Serial Communication and accessing IBM comm. ports using DOS and BIOS
1. One of the main differences between serial and parallel communication is the number of wires used to transfer the data. In parallel communication, there is one line for each data bit that is being transferred where as in the case of serial communication the data is sent on a single line 1 bit at a time. The major advantage of using serial data
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and simultaneously, as a result, effective communication could be caused.
By contrast, some early communication medium could not serve synchronous function, for instance, email. However, owing to advance in new media, information nowadays could be delivered without delay. Baym (2010) mentions that face-to-face conversation could be realized in synchronous communicational media, for example, phone call and instant messages. Utz (2007:695) indicates that the computer-mediated communication overcomes the geographical distance between users but also reduces the time of delivering messages, and the communication based on the modern media would be synchronous. In the early of twenty first
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and principles under which they operate. A great manager studies the culture and develops an appropriate style of communication between each individual that make up the organization. Public relations function in the dynamics of the employee relations field is communicating a favorable image and message throughout the company. Public Relations personnel work closely with Human Resources personnel; PR plays a major role in diffusing internal conflicts, creating programs and ideas to boost company morale and damage control when tragedies arise. PR helps to manage internal relationships and interpret the external events of the business to the internal environment of the organization. All these
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decisions about the goals and activities that an individual, a group, a work unit, or the overall organization will pursue" (Bateman & Snell, 2007, p. 16). The planning function has multiple levels: strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. According to a PowerPoint presentation in the MGT 330 class (personal communication, June 2008), the planning process involves:Define business and develop mission statementEstablish goalsDetermine alternative courses of actionEvaluate alternativesSelect best alternativeDevelop plan to implement best alternativeMonitor plan and adjust as neededThe factors that influence planning are: globalization, economic, legal, political, social
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Companies continuously seek for the best organizational structure that will allow employees to be as effective and efficient as possible. The question many managers must ask themselves is whether to organize their departments by product or by function. Managers must decide between having specialist grouped together by function regardless of the product they work on or having them grouped by specific products and which option will be best suited for their organization (Walker & Lorsch, 1968, p. 1). Walker and Lorsch in their article “Organizational Choice: Product vs. Function” (1968) take an in-depth look at two companies, Plant F and Plant P, in order to examine these two structures in
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with and influence other brings significant rewards.Communication is the act of transmitting verbal and non-verbal information and understanding between seller and buyer. The process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and non-verbal messages. In the context of medical education, its primary function is to establish understanding between patient and doctor. In an atmosphere of effective communication, patients improve faster, cope better with post-operative pain, require less psychotropic drugs, and experience numerous other health benefits.The creation of shared understanding through interaction among two or more agents. Communication
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“Police power is vested in those who determine police structure, set the police agenda, and choose the tactics police employ”.
A. Communication process in a police environment
In the statement above, “those” refers to police managers and supervisors, and then communication is essential for a police department to function daily. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors. Communication within a police department is passing on information about crime rates and patterns in the city, relying new policies and procedures to rookies, and taking calls from the public. Communication is a skill and is a
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recovery management, data integrity management, database access languages and application programming interfaces, database communication interfaces, and transaction management.
The first function of database management system is data dictionary. Database management system has been perform management functions to the elements in the database and how to connect the relationships with other data. When the system requires data in a database that will facilitate DBMS via SQL to access and search data. So that users can easily handle it. Data dictionary is used by database Administrators and Programmers and data dictionary is frequently hidden from the user.
Data storage also one of database
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functions while marketing communications, consumer relations, public affairs and issues management plus social responsibility are societal functions. An industry must develop a positive image to the public and within the industry (Sitel 2006). To present this image successfully, a corporation must take need action in both categories.Public RelationsPublic relations is a distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics; involves the management of problems or issues; helps management to keep informed on and responsible to public opinion; defines and emphasizes the
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Bridging the Communication Gap
For years, communication was the number one method for delivering information between two parties. Communication has always considered being either verbal or non-verbal, depending on the situation in which the information must be relayed. Communication consist of body language, verbal communication, letters, messages, sign language and anything else that rely on the usage of words to transfer or decode emotions and thoughts. As of recently, newer forms of communication have appeared and to a certain degree, render all older forms obsolete. Social media, blogs, video messages, text messages, email, and have all taken over as the main communication function
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allows for humans to experience emotion that is necessary for everyday function. Whether one is happy, sad, frustrated, or just need to get something off of their chest, communication face-to-face is vital. But, with social media one may never view the other person’s reaction and end up never getting the gratification they need, or the response they wish to hear. Communication face-to-face is a valuable skill that people need to function and without it; we are slowly letting social media and technology force us into isolation from one another. With technological advancements all over the world, many people argue that it has sculpted society for the better. However, some believe that
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Hargie’s 5-P Model when presenting information to an audience as I found this allowed me to structure my ideas effectively so that each point flowed naturally to the next which allowed the audience to understand and process the message. Finally the one development need that I identified was my eye contact with an audience, to improve upon this I intend to make eye contact with each person I come in contact with daily and also when speaking to a group in future I will try and make eye contact with each person at some point as to fully engage with them.
Buckley, B. (2003). Children’s communication from birth to five years. London: Routledge
Hargie, O. (2011). Skilled interpersonal communication: Research, theory and practice. Fifth edition. London: Routledge.
Adler, R Elmhorst, J. (2008) Communicating at work, Ninth edition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill
Kendon, A (1967) Some function of gaze direction in social ineraction, Acta psychological, 26, 22-63
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"the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through the employment of the four management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources" (2005). Daft adds that these functions are goal-directed, interrelated and interdependent.
The first of these functions, planning, involves creating a systematic process for achieving the goals of the firm. It prepares the organization for the future. Planning can take many forms and a variety of methods may be employed. Creativity and communication becomes very important in the function of planning. For example, during my employment with a tax service, in planning a marketing
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, annual reports, and distribution of information to those investors. Investor relations could have a large legal impact on the share price of company stock if the information is not correct. Giving an investor timely information will ensure the investor continues to have an interest in the company. Communication management plays a part in investor relations due to the information that is gather for those investors.Societal FunctionsSocietal communications are publicity and marketing communication. Publicity is a function that can foster positive coverage for a company allowing for the organization to be shown in the best light possible. Dealing with the media is the largest function a PR
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Information security plays a central role in the deployment of modern communication systems. The most important objectives of information security are authentication, confidentiality, data integrity and non-repudiation. Confidentiality ensures that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access. Authentication is the process proving the identity that assures the communicating entity is the one that it claimed to be, this means that the user or the system can prove their own identities to other parties who don’t have personal knowledge of their identities. Data integrity ensures that the received information has not been altered in any way from its original form. Data
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lecturer to know that they can continue, as the information has been understood. Whereas a room full of frowns will convey that more explanation is needed and the lecturer can act accordingly. This example shows the importance of nonverbal communication in everyday, social life as without it the lecturer would have to rely on verbal feedback, which would be confusing and time consuming when a large number of students are present.
Hartley (1999) had differing views on the role of nonverbal communication. He argued that ‘representation’ was also a key function in that nonverbal communication allows a channel for individuals to pass on points of view and differing perceptions and is a vital
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walking about on a daily basis & be accessible by the staff they manage . Each choice will determine the kind and content of communication that occurs. Grouping by function will create cliques based on profession. Between cliques there will be ignorance of each others modus operandi and working pressures which creates interdepartmental friction as each can only see their set of priories. Not grouping by function means that levels of specialist knowledge will take longer to increase and cause dissatisfaction in professionals and knowledge workers.
Team building works on the principle of “put them through hell and they will end up working together”. For many employees they are already doing
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According to Edward Hall, in his book of Silent Language, nonverbal verbal communication can be universal. This language is important considering about 92 percent of human communication is nonverbal. Body parts can give the same messages and are part of the human person. Like culture, Nonverbal can be learned but not in a formal or controlled way. It plays an important role in the human species life because it is the first communication we learn before we actually start comprehending words.
There are six functions of nonverbal communications. There are First Impressions and it is when people judge you. This function can be both helpful as it is way to try to understand how your